Source: UNDP in Tanzania

United Republic of Tanzania

National Focal Point

Vice President’s Office

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2020 – 2030
  • The National Climate Change Strategy (2012)
  • Zanzibar Climate Change Strategy (2014)
  • National Communications (2013 and 2015)
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) (2007)
  • Natural Gas Policy (2013)
  • Zanzibar Environmental Policy (2014)
  • Renewable Energy Strategy (2014)
  • Natural Gas Act (2015)
  • National Forestry Policy (1998)
  • National Transport Master Plan (2013)
  • National Environmental Policy (1997)
  • Zanzibar Environmental Policy (2013)
  • National Environmental Action Plan (2012 – 2017)
  • National REDD+ Strategy and Action Plan (2013)
  • National Environment Management Act (2004)
  • Tanzania Development Vision (2025)
  • Zanzibar Vision (2020)
  • Tanzania Five Year Development Plan (2011/12 – 2015/16)
  • National Climate Change Strategy (2012)
  • Zanzibar Climate Change Strategy (2014)

National Institutional Arrangements

The NDC sets out that the implementation of it is based on the country’s various policies, development vision programmes, strategies and action plans, which are set to be reviewed regularly. The intended contributions will be reviewed in a participatory manner to reflect the emerging needs, changes and decisions.

Priorities and Needs

The NDC sets out that current climate variability and change resulting in extreme weather events already lead to major economic costs in Tanzania. It provides that climate change impacts are affecting coastal zones, public health, energy supply and demand, infrastructure, water resources, agricultural production and availability of ecosystem goods and services.

The NDC states that the adaptation priority sectors are: agriculture, livestock, coastal and marine environment, fisheries, water resources, forestry, health, tourism, human settlement and energy.

It is said that the frequency and severity of extreme climate change related events will increase, and that in the last 40 years, Tanzania has experienced severe and recurring droughts with devastating effects to agriculture, water and energy sectors.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Tanzania’s NDC sets out the country’s plans for building adaptive capacities and enhancing long-term resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change. The NDC lists Tanzania’s intended contributions for a number of key sectors:


  • Up-scaling the level of improvement of agricultural land and water management
  • Increasing yields through inter alia climate smart agriculture
  • Protecting smallholder farmers against climate related shocks, including through crop insurance
  • Strengthening the capacity of Agricultural research institutions to conduct basic and applied research
  • Strengthening knowledge, extension services and agricultural infrastructures to target climate actions


  • Promoting climate change resilient traditional and modern knowledge on sustainable pasture and range management systems
  • Enhancing development of livestock infrastructures and services
  • Promoting livelihood diversification of livestock keepers
  • Promoting development of livestock insurance strategies


  • Enhancing efficiency in wood fuel utilization
  • Enhancing participatory fire management.
  • Enhancing forest governance and protection of forest resources
  • Enhancing Sustainable forest management


  • Exploring and investing in energy diversification system
  • Promoting use of energy efficient technologies and behaviour
  • Enhancing integrated basin catchment and upstream land management for hydro sources
  • Enhancing the use of renewable energy potential across the country (hydro, solar, wind, biomass and geothermal)

Coastal, Marine Environment and Fisheries:

  • Strengthening management of coastal resources and beach erosion/sea level rise control systems
  • Promoting livelihood diversification for coastal communities
  • Improving monitoring and early warning systems of both sea level rise impacts and extreme weather events for building adaptive capacity
  • Enhancing programme for management of saltwater inundation and intrusion
  • Mangrove & shoreline restoration programme
  • Enhancing conservation & fishery resource management
  • Strengthening key fisheries management services for sound development and management of the fishery sector for resilience creation

Water Resources:

  • Promoting integrated water resources development and management practices
  • Investment in protection and conservation of water catchments including flood control and rainwater harvesting structures
  • Promoting waste water reuse and recycling technologies
  • Development and exploitation of groundwater resources

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

Tanzania’s adaptation contributions aims to reduce climate related disasters to 50%, significantly curtailing the impacts of spatial and temporal variability of declining rainfall, frequent droughts and floods which have long term implications to all productive sectors and ecosystems, particularly agricultural. The adaptation contributions include disaster risk reduction efforts, for example, for human settlement, contributions include to construct and rehabilitate drainage systems to response to frequent and high intensity flash floods.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The NDC states that an initial estimate of immediate and start-up financing needs for enhancing adaptive capacity is about US$150 million. In addition, about US$500 million per year is needed to address climate change adaptation and building resilience up to 2020, increasing up to US$1 billion per year by 2030.

It makes clear that effectively implementing adaptation contributions will require timely access to adequate and predictable financial resources; access to appropriate technologies; access to appropriate knowledge and skills; and institutional capacity building. Tanzania’s capacity to undertake strong adaptation actions beyond national efforts depend on support for implementation. In addition, enhancing capacity in early-warning systems across sectors, improved research and systematic observations, improved climate change institutional capacity and coordination as well as awareness will be critical in addressing climate change.

It emphasises that implementation of the identified contributions will strongly depend on how the international community meets its commitments in terms of financial and technological support.