Photo: UNDP South Sudan

South Sudan

National Focal Point

  • Ministry of Environment and Forestry

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

National Institutional Arrangements

South Sudan’s INDC provides that the Ministry of Environment has developed an Environment Policy Framework and Environmental Bill that will regulate the exploitation of natural resources and all forms of socio-economic development in the country. It provides that South Sudan, through the Ministry of Environment, has the full responsibility to monitor and evaluate the implementation of INDCs through regular stakeholder consultative engagement. This will ensure the effective updating and implementation of both mitigation and adaption plans.

Priorities and Needs

South Sudan’s INDC sets out that the country is vulnerable to climate change and associated socio-economic losses and damages due to the dependence of its population on climate-sensitive natural resources for their livelihoods.  It outlines that the country’s population is highly dependent on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture (that is mainly rain-fed) for their livelihoods. Moreover, climate change is expected to have impacts on the energy, tourism, water and health sectors. Climate hazards have caused considerable losses across the country’s sectors over the years. The most frequently occurring climate hazards include droughts and floods, which cause economic losses to the country.

It sets out that climate change has impacted socio-economic activities, particularly as unpredictable rain patterns, recurrent droughts, flash flooding and excessive heat have resulted in crop failures causing food insecurity and famine. It also explains that South Sudan has among the largest livestock populations in Africa, the existence of which is threatened by climate change.

It further sets out that the effects of climate change are already being felt in South Sudan in the form of erratic and reduced rainfall periods and consequent increased frequency of droughts and floods.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

South Sudan’s INDC sets out that priority actions are based on observed adverse effects of climate change:

Agriculture and livestock:

  • Promoting climate-smart agriculture
  • Livestock improvement
  • Enhancement of fisheries productivity
  • Soil erosion control
  • Promoting the harvesting and retention of water for different uses


  • Conduct comprehensive vulnerability assessments concerning human health and well-being
  • Strengthen public health systems by building hospitals and supplying them with medicine, equipment and personnel trained on treating climate-related diseases

Adapting Vulnerable Communities to Climate Change:

  • Enhance access to water in light of growing climate threats through integrated watershed management, wetland management and improved waste management
  • Enhance food security under a changing climate through the introduction of climate-smart agricultural techniques and irrigated agriculture
  • Ensure capacity building and participation of the society, local communities, indigenous peoples, women, men, youth, civil organizations and private sector in national and subnational climate change planning
  • Establish/rehabilitate the hydro-meteorological monitoring network to collect climatic information and provide flood and drought early warning
  • Strengthen the adaptive capacity of the population through transparent and inclusive mechanisms of social participation in the implementation of adaptation interventions, designed with a gender and human rights approach
  • Reduce vulnerability of population by integrating climate change considerations into land use planning
  • Increase investments in disaster prevention mechanisms, such as early warning systems, rather than disaster response mechanisms
  • Improve environmental health-related infrastructure to reduce the spread of water-borne diseases which will be exacerbated by climate change
  • Create buffer zones and relocate vulnerable communities away from flood-prone areas

Forests, Biodiversity and Ecosystems:

  • Promote agro-forestry practices as a way of diversifying land production systems and promoting alternative livelihood options
  • Promote afforestation of degraded landscapes/watersheds using multi- use forest species to increase community safety-nets and diversify livelihoods
  • Develop forest reserves and management plans to protect watersheds and improve future water availability
  • Promote alternative sources of energy to reduce deforestation and the consequent loss of livelihood options
  • Improve the enforcement of environmental regulations
  • Establish conservancies and protected areas to buffer local communities and biodiversity against climate change impacts
  • Establish water points for wildlife in protected areas to reduce the negative effects of droughts on animal populations
  • Increase awareness of local communities on climate change and environmental protection
  • Introduce fire management plans to prevent the spread of wildfires during periods of drought
  • Introduce an integrated natural resource management approach


  • Improve urban and industrial waste water treatment, ensuring quantity and good quality of water in human settlements
  • Incorporate adaptation criteria for public investment projects, particularly those to be carried out under the Comprehensive Agriculture Development Plan and the Irrigation Development Master Plan
  • Ensure that land-use plans and building codes reflect the expected impacts of climate change.

Institutional and policy actions:

  • Coordinate climate change actions and mainstream climate change concerns into all sectors
  • Implement actions to assemble, analyse, predict and disseminate climate information through improved climate monitoring and data management systems

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

The INDC includes disaster risk reduction measures in their adaptation plan, for example,  investment in disaster prevention mechanisms such as early warning systems is included as part of South Sudan’s plan to adapt vulnerable communities to climate change.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

South Sudan’s INDC includes a section on capacity building and transfer of technology.

It notes that a number of areas have been identified where technology transfer could benefit the country, including through:

  • Access to climate information systems in order to monitor hydro-meterological events in real time and establish early warning systems
  • Water technologies for water savings, recycling, harvesting, irrigation and sustainable management for agricultural purposes
  • Availability of methods and tools to assess climate impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in specific sectors and regions
  • Transportation technologies that are resilient to the adverse effects of climate change and technologies for the protection of infrastructure, particularly in flood-prone area

It highlights that international support would facilitate the development of South Sudan’s own technologies as well as enable technology transfer and innovation to increase adaptive capacity within the country.

In relation to capacity-building, the NDC states that South Sudan’s priorities relate largely to planning and implementation of climate change actions at all levels, i.e. national, state and local/community.

The NDC states that south Sudan will only be able to embark on achieving its INDC with financial, capacity building and technical support from the international community in its efforts at all levels.

Regarding climate finance, it is estimated that investment of over US$ 50 billion is required for mitigation and adaptation actions across sectors up to 2030, noting that these are approximate estimates and further analysis is planned to identify support requirements.