The NDC notes that Somalia is ranked at 7 out of 233 countries and regions in global ranking to the impacts of climate change. It sets out that Somalia is experiencing a number of recurring disasters, including droughts and floods. The NDC includes a report of its top natural disasters, their date, and the number of affected people.
The NDC provides that pastorals, crop production, fisheries and forestry sectors are supporting over 80% of the population. It describes the vulnerability of Somalia’s traditional rural livelihoods systems to increasing climatic variability, as well as concerns over increases in the occurrence and severity of natural disasters, including extended drought events and flash flooding.
It notes that high variability of rainfall patterns including El Nino events could have far reaching implications on incidents of drought, floods, water quality, yield of ground water and shallow water reserves. Furthermore, in coastal areas sea level rise is likely to increasingly affect groundwater through coastal erosion, surface inundation and seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers.
Somalia’s NDC identifies a number of ready for implementation and planned adaptation and mitigation projects, describing each in detail:
The adaptation component of the NDC has synergies with disaster risk reduction efforts. One of the projects detailed in the NDC is ‘adaptation by reducing risks among vulnerable populations from natural disasters’. This will involve strengthening the National and Regional Disaster Risk Management Authorities with preventative as well as responsive capacities and integrating its policies into other sector policies. The scheme will also involve data collection, institutional establishment of national early warning systems, and improved infrastructure and training programs.
The NDC emphasises that an effective disaster management, a well warned and informed population and a coordinated joint government inter-ministerial plans are needed to achieve adaptation measures.
The total cost of ready for implementation and planned adaptation and mitigation projects exceeds US$102.89 million. The NDC does not specify how this would be divided between adaptation and mitigation costs, or between internal and external funding.
The NDC provides that the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) and the donor shall assess the status of the target project components at the initiation of the project and through periodic supervision shall evaluate the progress made. Such monitoring and evaluation shall be kept up by the MOA once the project is completed and the land and the electricity are leased to the private companies to maintain the proper functioning of the facilities for both private and public good.