Photo: UNDP


National Focal Point

  • Rwanda Environment Management Authority

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2020 – 2030
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) (2006)
  • National Strategy for Climate Change
  • Low Carbon Development Strategy
  • Green Growth and Climate Resilient Strategy (2011)
  • National Water Security Plan

National Institutional Arrangements

The NDC sets out that at the institutional level the Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA) is the Ministry responsible for formulating and monitoring national policies related to climate change and environment, while the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA) is the official organ responsible for implementing national policies and strategies related to climate change and the environment.

It sets out that successful implementation of the NDC will require close coordination and collaboration between MINERENA, REMA and all potential stakeholders.

Priorities and Needs

Rwanda’s NDC describes that the country is highly vulnerable to climate change, as it is strongly reliant on rain-fed agriculture for rural livelihoods and for exports of mainly tea and coffee. It highlights that in recent years, extreme weather events in Rwanda increased in frequency and magnitude and, in some parts of the country, led to significant losses including human lives. It sets out that floods and landslides were increasingly reported in the high altitude Western and Northern Provinces, while droughts made severe damages in the Eastern Province.

The NDC sets out that Rwanda is vulnerable to the increasing rainfall intensity that is expected to result from climate change, leading to a higher frequency of floods and storms resulting in landslides, crop losses, health risks, and damage to infrastructure, as well as an increase in temperatures resulting in proliferation of diseases, crop decline and reduced land availability that impacts on food security and export earnings.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

The NDC sets out Rwanda’s long term vision to become a climate resilient economy. It details adaptation actions for five key sectors:

Agriculture: the sustainable intensification of agriculture and diversity in local and export markets

  • Mainstreaming agro ecology techniques to maximise sustainable food production
  • Utilising resource recovery and reuse through organic waste composting and wastewater irrigation
  • Using fertiliser enriched compost
  • Mainstreaming sustainable pest management techniques to control plant parasites and pathogens
  • Soil conservation and land husbandry
  • Irrigation and water management
  • Add value to agricultural products through processing to meet its own market demand for food stuffs

Forestry: sustainable forestry, agroforestry and biomass energy

  • Promote afforestation/reforestation of designated areas through enhanced germplasm and technical practices in planting and post-planting processes
  • Employ Improved Forest Management for degraded forest resources

Tourism: ecotourism, conservation and payment for ecosystem services promotion in protected areas

  • Maximise business tourism (the largest source of export revenues) through strategic conference management in order to maximise the distribution and volume of business travellers throughout the year

Water: integrated water resource management and planning

  • Establish a national integrated water resource management framework that incorporates district and community based catchment management
  • Develop water resource models, improved meteorological services, water quality testing, and improved hydrorelated information management
  • Develop a National Water Security Plan to employ water storage and rain water harvesting, water conservation practices, efficient irrigation, and other water efficient technologies

Land use: an integrated approach to sustainable land use planning and management

  • Employ an integrated approach to planning and sustainable land use management
  • Improve spatial data by harnessing ICT and GIS technology

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

Rwanda’s NDC also sets out cross cutting actions for disaster management. These include:

  • Conduct risk assessments and vulnerability mapping
  • Establish an integrated early warning system, and disaster response plans
  • Employ community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) programmes designed around local environmental and economic conditions, to mobilise local capacity in emergency response, and to reduce locally-specific hazards
  • Improve observation facilities to provide all climate information necessary for future monitoring, climate trend detection, management of climate variability, early warning and disaster management

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The NDC makes clear that its full implementation will require predictable, sustainable and reliable support in the form of finance, capacity building and technology transfer.

For both adaptation and mitigation actions, the initial costing of implementing the green growth and climate resilience strategy indicated that Rwanda will need US$24.15 billion in the water resource management, agriculture and energy sectors up to 2030. It notes that costing of the remaining sectors will give a clearer indication of financial needs.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Rwanda’s NDC explains that the Republic of Rwanda through the Ministry of Natural Resources hold the responsibility to monitor and evaluate the implementation of NDCs through regular statutory stakeholders’ consultative engagement including the Environment and Natural Resources Joint Sector Review (JSR) meetings.