Photo: Carlos Crespo and UNDP Madagascar


National Focal Point

Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Écologie et des Forêts (MEEFT) (Ministry of Environmnet, Ecology and Forests)

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2021-2030
  • Politique Nationale de lutte contre le Changement Climatique (2010)
  • Politique Générale de l’Etat
  • Plan National de Développement (2015-2019)

Priorities and Needs

The NDC sets out the climate change impacts that have been particularly severe for Madagascar during the last wo decades:

  • extended drought periods
  • increased variability of the rainfall regime
  • intensification of cyclones
  • floods associated with cyclone disturbances

The NDC describes that Madagascar is among the top-ten countries of the world having important and extensive coastal zones. Due to its geographical position, the island frequently experiences extreme weather events that significantly affect its national economy, as well as the population’s livelihood.

It provides that the impacts of climatic hazards that most affect the country are cyclones, floods, drought, and sea-level rise. It goes on to list examples of impacts already observed regarding current climate trends, as well as potential impacts, if no action is implemented.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Madagascar’s NDC sets out the following priority actions before 2020:

  • Finalisation and implementation of the National Adaptation Plan
  • Strengthen climate change adaptation mainstreaming in all strategic/framework documents
  • Multi-hazard early warning systems primarily that mainly consider cyclones, floods, drought and the public health surveillance
  • Effective application of existing or newly established sectorial policies: flood and cyclone-resistant hydro-agricultural infrastructures standards, cyclone resistant buildings standards, flood-resistant terrestrial transport infrastructure standards, local for climate hazard community guideline for Water-Sanitation-Hygiene
  • Intensive awareness raising campaigns concerning the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation
  • Development of Resilient Agriculture Integrated Model pilot projects/programmes (combination of watershed management, selected/adapted varieties, locally-produced compost, rehabilitation of hydro-agricultural infrastructures, input access facilitation system, conservation agriculture, and agroforestry) or “climate-smart agriculture”
  • Promotion of intensive/improved rice farming system and rain-fed rice farming technique
  • Formulation and implementation of the national policy of the maritime territory of Malagasy, considering climate change
  • Formulation and implementation of the National Strategy for Integrated Water Resources Management
  • Evaluation of links for the climate change and migration of vector-borne diseases, malaria, and others emerging diseases as well as the evolution of acute respiratory infections, in order to identify remedial and/or corrective measures
  • Restoration of natural forests and reinforcement of habitat connectivity
  • Identification and sustainable management of climate refuge areas inside and outside protected areas
  • Contribution to the finalisation of the “National framework for meteorological services” for which Madagascar has committed to the World Meteorological Organisation

It then sets out the following actions to be undertaken between 2020 and 2030:

  • Real-time monitoring of climate information
  • Effective implementation of multi-hazard early warning systems, including cyclones, floods, food security, drought, hunger, health and phytosanitory monitoring
  • Widespread application of Resilient Agriculture Integrated Models in major agricultural centre, cash crop zones, extensive livestock farming areas, priority areas for fisheries, mangroves, as well as drought hotspots
  • Sustainable and integrated water resources management, particularly in sub-arid areas and those vulnerable to drought periods
  • Reinforcement of natural protection and reduction of the vulnerability of coastal, inshore and marine areas affected by coastal erosion and receding shorelines progress (Menabe, Boeny, South-west and East)
  • Strengthen and upgrade casualty multi-hazard early warning systems including the aspects of phytosanitory, agricultural, drought and food security monitoring
  • Sustainable and integrated water resources management, especially in sub-arid areas and those vulnerable to drought periods
  • Implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation to cope with sand-hill progression (multiple causes but phenomena aggravated by climate change) by leveraging research findings and best practices
  • Restoration of natural habitats (forests and mangroves: 45,000 ha; lakes, streams, etc.).

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

The NDC describes that during the last five years, losses and damages associated with floods and cyclone events are estimated at about US$470-940 million per year.

A number of the adaptation actions set out in the NDC have synergies with disaster risk reduction, including the implementation of multi-hazard early warning systems for cyclones, floods, drought, etc., as well as the application of flood and cyclone-resistant agricultural, building and transport infrastructure standards.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The NDC states that the effective implementation of Madagascar’s contributions requires the reinforcement of the national capacities (technical, institutional, mobilisation and absorption of funding) and transfer of technology and research from developed countries, as well as the contributions of countries and other stakeholders that are actively involved in the fight against climate change.

Madagascar’s NDC estimates the cost of adaptation climate actions in the period 2015-2030 to amount to US$28.713 billion.

The NDC states that the Republic of Madagascar will contribute, through the mobilisation of domestic resources, up to 4% of the NDC implementation costs.