Photo: UNDP


National Focal Point

  • Environmental Protection Agency of Liberia (EPA)

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • INDC: 2020-2030
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) 2008
  • National Adaptation Plan (NAP) (in development)
  • National Climate Change Policy (in development)

National Institutional Arrangements

The INDC describes that many sectoral policies have not mainstreamed the impacts of climate change. It says that as overarching climate change policy is currently being developed which will serve as the pillar for comprehensive sectoral strategies and action plans and enable better coordination of climate change work between the government and the people of Liberia; as well as with development partners, international and regional institutions, intergovernmental organizations and experts.

Priorities and Needs

The INDC describes that Liberia is faced with climate change and variability leading to extreme events, which negatively impact agriculture, forestry, health, energy and other sectors. Climate change impacts are marked by irregular patterns of rainfall, flooding, high temperature, and coastal erosion. These factors result in crop and livestock losses that intensify food insecurity and loss of income.

The INDC notes that women and children are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and also that Liberia’s supporting infrastructures increase the vulnerability of the population. With coastal areas being the most populated and economically vibrant areas in Liberia, sea erosion continues to pose increasing threats to the shorelines of coastal cities and can also lead to displacement, loss of lives and properties and can severely undermine national security.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Liberia’s NDC sets out the three priority areas for adaptation:

  • Agriculture: Enhancing resilience to increasing rainfall variability through the diversification of crop cultivation and small ruminants rearing
  • Building a national hydro-meteorological monitoring system and improved networking for the measurement of climatic parameters
  • Building coastal defence walls to reduce the vulnerability of urban coastal areas

It provides that the long-term adaptation initiatives will include fishery, health, and transport, all with an integrated gender-responsive approach to ensure progress toward efficient and effective adaptive capacity and resilience.

In the short, medium and long terms, Liberia plans to implement adaption actions under different sectors as follows:


  • Develop and promote drought-resistant, flood- tolerant and early maturing crop species
  • Intercropping, irrigation and the optimization of lowland/swamp farming
  • Pest control including fencing of farms against rodents, birds scarecrows, regular weeding, and the use of high echoing bells
  • Develop climate resilient crop/agroforestry diversification and livestock production systems
  • Create a platform for knowledge and experience sharing on best adaptation practices
  • Develop and implement agriculture and hydrological technology models and scenarios for planning
  • Establishment of a gene bank of climate resilient varieties of indigenous food crops


  • Protection of water catchments around hydro-power sources such as the St. Paul River Basin
  • Strengthening of transmission and distribution infrastructure for public utilities to ensure climate resilience (i.e. flooding).


  • Strengthen integrated disease surveillance response systems and emergency preparedness to prevent, mitigate, and respond to epidemics
  • Strengthen preventive measures to restrict preventable disease transmission
  • Develop early warning systems for climate- driven infectious diseases
  • Integrate climate change considerations into existing health policies and strategies, taking into account gender-differentiated impacts and responses
  • Conduct research on health vulnerability and impact, and develop scenarios to facilitate adequate planning


  • Increase awareness and strengthen participation of local dwellers in forest conservation
  • Protection of forest and biodiversity rich forest zones
  • Increase the amount of forested land through reforestation of degraded lands

Coastal Zone:

  • Develop and implement Coastal Zone policy, strategy and management plan
  • Construct hard structures such as sea walls or revetment
  • Manage and conserve coastal mangrove ecosystem
  • Facilitate technology transfer and training of institutional and local experts in coastal zone management and monitoring


  • Strengthen institutional and local capacity and monitoring systems for fishery management
  • Develop and implement climate smart fishery systems to enhance the adaptive capacity and resilience of fisher communities
  • dentification and conservation of endangered fish species


  • Implement and reinforce design standards and planning codes for roads and other infrastructure to cope with flooding, sea level rise and windstorm
  • Strengthen early warning systems and evacuation planning for intense rainfall events and floods
  • Install signs high above the ground that can alert pedestrians and motorists of unsafe zones, such as low-lying areas
  • Maintain and upgrade roads with appropriate drainage systems to cope with flooding
  • Improve and enhance public transport services

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

Liberia’s INDC provides that the completion of projects will depend on the availability of funding.

The INDC notes that to fully implement Liberia’s adaptation interventions, there is a need for adequate, predictable, and sustainable financial, technological, and capacity support and mechanisms provided by various sources. Further studies will be conducted in the future to determine an estimated cost of implementing Liberia’s INDC. Liberia intends to mobilize funds from the private sector, bilateral and multilateral sources and all other sources, mechanisms and instruments.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The INDC provides that Liberia recognises that a system of monitoring, reporting and verification is a fundamental pillar of its  INDC for the purpose of transparency and accountability. It will build upon existing structures for monitoring and evaluation, and intersectoral coordination. In this regard, the country will require further support to ensure that its monitoring, reporting and verification system is strengthened (institutional arrangement and responsibilities, indicators, methodologies) in order to track progress toward the implementation of INDCs including non GHG co-benefits.