Photo: UNDP


National Focal Point

  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

Priorities and Needs

Ethiopia’s NDC makes clear that climate change will affect all geographic areas of the country, and will involve the entire population, but notes particularly farmers and pastoralists. It states that given that 80% of Ethiopia’s population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods, increasing the resilience of agriculture is a priority. This includes addressing the high levels of vulnerability of the sector to droughts and floods. The NDC also recognises the negative impact of climate change on health, economic growth and natural resource conservation.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Ethiopia’s NDC states that Ethiopia intends to undertake adaptation initiatives to reduce the vulnerability of its population, environment and economy to the adverse effects of climate change, based on its Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy (CRFE).

It sets out that Ethiopia’s long-term goal is to ensure that adaptation to climate change is fully mainstreamed into development activities.

For current and near-term action, the NDC highlights several strategic and programmatic adaptation actions that Ethiopia has undertaken:

  • The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) since 2007
  • The Ethiopian Programme of Adaptation to Climate Change (EPACC 2011)
  • Nine National Regional States and two City Administrations adaptation plans
  • Agriculture sector adaptation strategy

For medium and long-term actions, the NDC lists the following:


  • increase agricultural productivity, minimize food insecurity and increase incomes by making available improve crop varieties
  • protecting humans and animals from extreme droughts by diverting streams, digging wells and enhancing water harvesting techniques
  • improve and diversify economic opportunities from agroforestry and sustainable afforestation of degraded areas
  • enhance irrigation systems through rainwater harvesting and conservation of water
  • ensure uninterrupted availability of water services in urban areas through dams, deep wells, water saving technologies and wastewater treatment infrastructure
  • improve traditional methods that scientifically prevent deterioration of food in storage facilities
  • create biodiversity movement corridors
  • enhance ecosystem health through ecological farming, sustainable land management practices and improve livestock production practices
  • expand electric power generation from geothermal, wind and solar sources


  • enhance the adaptive capacity of ecosystems, communities and infrastructure through an ecosystem rehabilitation approach in the highlands
  • build additional dams and power stations as well as develop new dam sites on parallel rivers to maintain the baseline hydropower electricity generation levels
  • develop and implement climate change compatible building/construction codes which are safe, and minimize economic damage.

Other cross cutting interventions:

  • developing insurance systems to rebuild economic life following disasters
  • reducing the incidence and impact of fire and pest epidemics on livelihoods and ecosystems
  • effective early warning systems and disaster risk management policies to improve resilience to extreme weather events
  • strengthening capacity to deal with the expansion and emergence of human, animal, crop and plant disease
  • strengthening and increasing the capacity for breeding and distributing disease resistant crop varieties

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

There are a number of synergies between the long-term adaptation goals that are outlined in the NDC and disaster risk reduction efforts. In addition to the actions outlined to respond to drought and flood (and hence reduce the risk of disaster resulting from droughts and floods), these include developing insurance systems to rebuild economic life following disaster and developing effective early warning systems and disaster risk management policies.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The NDC makes clear that the full implementation of Ethiopia’s NDC requires predictable, sustainable and reliable support in the form of finance, capacity building and technology transfer.

It sets out that future research will be conducted for adaptation needs in order to:

  • quantify the required international financial, technological and capacity building support for the implementation of vulnerability abatement measures up to and beyond 2030
  • identify and quantify the technical support needed for the adequate integration of climate change adaptation considerations into existing and planned policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects
  • identify the required technical support to quantify the cost of countering the social, environmental and economic vulnerabilities likely to result from the adverse impacts of climate change

Monitoring and Evaluation

The NDC states that the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MEF) will regularly organize consultative dialogues to review the implementation of the national and sectoral adaptation plans. This iterative process will ensure that national and sectoral adaptation plans are regularly updated and implemented.