Solar Plants in Areza and Maidma in Eritrea ©UNDPEritrea/Elizabeth Mwaniki


National Focal Point

  • Ministry of Land, Water and the Environment

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2020 – 2030
  • Climate Resilient Sustainable Economy Development policy
  • National Adaptation Plan (NAP)
  • The Five Year Indicative Development Plan (FYIDP) (2009)
  • Ten Year Long-Term Indicative Perspective Development Plan (TYIPDP) (2009)
  • Interim-Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP) (2003)
  • National Economic Policy Framework and Program (NEPFP) 1998-2000
  • National Constitution (1997)
  • Macro Policy (1994)
  • National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) (2007)
  • National Environmental Management Plan (NEMP) (1995)

National Institutional Arrangements

The NDC provides a table setting out the existing government plans, strategies, policies and legal frameworks aligned with the implementation of the NDC.

Priorities and Needs

Eritrea’s NDC identifies a number of sectors that are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and need implementation of adaptation measures:

  • Agriculture: The NDC notes that over 70% of Eritrea’s population depends on agriculture for its livelihoods, but that for most parts of the year, the population remains food insecure as the result of climate change and land degradation. It states that recurrent droughts, desertification coupled with inappropriate land use practices has significantly contributed to the attrition of the natural resources-base
  • Marine Resources: The NDC describes that as Eritrea is a coastal state, climate change has direct impact on marine resources and infrastructure, including through sea level rise, increased sea water temperature, and increased acidity
  • Health: The NDC describes that during the past three decades the emergence of Malaria and Dengue Fever, in the past limited to the lowlands, have expanded their ecological converge towards the highlands. This is attributed to climatic change and variability
  • Water Resources: The NDC explains that due to being located in a drought-prone area of Africa, and due to its geological formation, Eritrea is not endowed with underground and surface water potentials, so water is a vital natural resource
  • Land Resources: Eritrea suffers from land degradation

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Eritrea’s NDC sets out planning strategies for different areas:

Agricultural Development:

  • Rehabilitate degraded land and protect forest from deforestation
  • Enhance Climate Smart Agriculture
  • Maintenance and restoration of soil

Forestry Development:

  • Introduce energy saving cooking stoves for rural households
  • Introduction of sustainable forest management

Water resources development:

  • Implementation of solar powered improved water systems
  • Provide clean water to all
  • Ensure efficient utilization of national water resources in all sectors of the economy

Land Resource Management:

  • Conservation of land from all forms of degradation
  • Development of land use and land capability classification maps
  • Implementation of the land law

Promotion of the Public Health:

  • Undertake various integrated programs including the use of mosquito nets, sensitization of the public and public health campaign to raise awareness

Marine Resources Development

  • Monitor the sea level rise, increase sea water temperature and acidity
  • Promote an Integrated Coastal Marine and Islands Resources Management System
  • Promote sustainable fishing techniques

The NDC then lists planned  adaptation goals for 2030:

  • development and establishment of new enclosure areas over 750,000 ha
  • promotion of Conservation Agriculture/Climate Smart Agriculture in 5% of the cultivable land
  • development and promotion of irrigation scheme by 170, 000 ha
  • afforestation program to cover over 36,000 ha
  • development of terrestrial and marine protected area over 1.5 million ha
  • construction of 90 new dams and 120 pounds
  • safe drinking water supply will increase from 75% to 100%
  • desalination of sea water for domestic and economic sectors in 15 coastal towns and villages and 7 islands
  • wastewater treatment plant established to treat 3 million m3 of water/year
  • rehabilitations degraded land program for agriculture over 250,000 ha
  • livestock production increased by 75%
  • crop production of pulses will cover 25% of total cultivable land
  • sustainable Land Management practice will be implemented in 15% of Eritrean total land covered
  • prevalence of climate change related public health problems and diseases will be prevented and reduced by 90%

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The NDC sets out financial needs for adaptation. Over the coming 15 years Eritrea needs total investment in the conditional scenarios of US$7.021 billion. This includes 15% of the total budget required for governance and capacity building across all sectors for effective implementation of both adaptation and mitigation programs.

For implementation of both adaptation and mitigation actions for the period 2020 – 2030, Eritrea requires continuous development and strengthening of its capacities. Platforms for the exchange of knowledge and information related to adaptation at all levels of government must be consolidated, as well as strengthening of networks with academics institutions and civil society. The NDC also details technology transfer needs.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Eritrea’s NDC notes that adaptation measures are subject to continuous scrutiny, and for that, periodic monitoring and evaluation to be compared with baseline data is recommended. This requires research and development endeavours. It is said that incongruent data and systems will be synchronised among the various agencies and project management offices in the national institutions to allow a holistic perspective of the overall projects’ status and results/outputs. The State of Eritrea through the Ministry of Land, Water and Environment has the full responsibility to monitor and evaluate the  implementation of INDCs through regular stakeholders consultative engagement. This will ensure the effective updating and implementation of both mitigation and adaption plans.