Sudan


National Focal Point

  •  Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources and Physical Development

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2020-2035
  • Initial National Communication
  • Second National Communication (2013)
  • National Adaptation Plan (2014)
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) (2007)
  • Agricultural Revival Program (ARP) 2008-2011
  • The Forest Policy (2006)

National Institutional Arrangements

The NDC explains that adaptation actions are implemented across the various sectors at both the national and states administrative levels. The National Adaptation Planning process being undertaken by Government provides a good basis for long-term adaptation programming and mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into existing national planning processes.

Priorities and Needs

Sudan’s NDC outlines that it is highly vulnerable to climate change and climate variability, predominantly a result of climatic and non-climatic factors. These factors in addition to the interaction of other multiple stresses such as ecosystem degradation, complex disasters and conflicts, and limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology have all weakened people’s ability to adapt to changes in climate. Frequency of extreme climatic shocks is increasing, particularly drought and floods. Frequent drought threatens about 19 million hectares of rain-fed mechanized and traditional farms, as well as the livelihoods of many pastoral and nomadic groups; more than 70% of Sudan’s population’s livelihood depends on this sectors.

The NDC describes the impacts of climate change for Sudan’s most vulnerable sectors, namely: agriculture, water resources, coastal zone, and public health.

It also describes Sudan’s vulnerability to climate change by listing the key vulnerabilities related to the following climate change impacts and variability: variable rains, temperature, floods, river flow, and coastal zone.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Sudan’s NDC includes a table with its intended adaptation contributions for various sectors:

Agriculture:

  • Crop diversification and introduction of improved drought-resistant varieties/early maturing varieties (both field and horticultural crops) in areas affected by rainfall decease/ variability
  • Rehabilitation of the meteorological networks to enhance early warning system activities
  • Diversification of income generating activities in order to increase adaptive capacity of vulnerable farmers’ communities in order to achieve food security/reduce poverty
  • Strengthening of enabling environment/activities to empower vulnerable communities
  • Introduction of agroforestry in areas vulnerable to climate change
  • Establishment of women cooperative societies
  • Enhancing the participation of women and youth in activities related to adaptation and environmental conservation
  • Climate-proofing of some of the existing developmental project
  • Planting shelterbelts, introduction of high economic value trees and rehabilitation of the Gum Arabic gardens to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities through engagement in a range of forestry activities
  • Regular surveillance of animal diseases through improved monitoring
  • Establishment of range’s enclosures/ranches to increase resilience of vulnerable communities
  • Advance research on various areas related to climate change impacts on rangelands (e.g. plants and animals species, communities etc.) and measures to address that
  • Joint management of the natural resources for comprehensive consideration of climate change impacts
  • Management of the grazing areas and rangelands in a sustainable manner
  • Enhancement of enabling environment in order to empower vulnerable communities
  • Restocking animal herds in areas affected by climate change
  • Improving animal productivity and animal breeds to increase resilience to climate change
  • Replanting and rehabilitating of vulnerable areas with palatable range species and management of animal routes
  • Improving veterinary services (including, mobile clinics provision of vaccines etc.) to enhance the adaptive capacity in vulnerable areas

Water:

  • Integrated Management of the water resources to meet the current and future challenges/needs
  • Water harvesting (dams, hafirs, terraces, etc.)
  • Establishment and rehabilitation of hand pumps and construction of water-networks in rural areas
  • Advance research related to climate change impacts on water sector
  • Establishment of rain gauge stations to monitor and provide hydrological information
  • Introduction of a revolving micro-credit fund to support implementation of small water harvesting projects

Coastal Zone:

  • New information systems: Enhancing monitoring programs in natural and urban settings to detect biological, physical, and chemical changes and responses due to direct and indirect effects of climate change
  • Implement integrated coastal zone management: an integrated approach to land use planning, creation of ecological buffer zones, establishing protected inland zones to accommodate salt marsh, mangrove and sea grass
  • Building awareness: This involves enhancing the awareness of coastal developers through national and international activities, technical assistance, and capacity-building

Health:

  • Introduction of early disease diagnosis and treatment programmes for malaria, meningitis, and leishmaniasis
  • Raising the health awareness of communities in vulnerable areas to climate change related diseases
  • Building the capacities of the health cadres and improvement of health services to meet the evolving and increasing challenges of climate change
  • Increasing health resilience to climate change related diseases and reducing the associated mortality by Supporting family’s and school’s health programmes
  • Control of Endemic and epidemic diseases induced by Climate Change through Combating vectors and insects borne diseases
  • Controlling of diseases shared between humans and animals
  • Improve community sanitation and medical services, including capacities for diagnosis and treatment

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

There are synergies between Sudan’s intended adaptation contributions and disaster risk reduction efforts. For example, the NDC sets out that one of Sudan’s intended adaptation contributions is to enhance early warning system activities.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

South Sudan’s NDC makes clear that the implementation of the envisaged undertakings communicated within it depend on various conditions, including:

  • The full implementation by developed countries of their commitments relating to finance, technology development and transfer and capacity-building pursuant to Article 4 of the Convention
  • Sudan’s access to adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources, including technology transfer and capacity-building.

Sudan’s NDC provides that the international support required to implement the intended contribution in terms of finance, technology and capacity building, over a cycle of contributions of 5-10 years, amount to US$1.2 billion for adaptation.