Senegal


National Focal Point

  • Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • INDC: 2016-2030
  • Senegal Development Plan [Plan Sénégal Émergent]: primary strategic document up until 2035
  • PAP (2014-2018)
  • National Adaptation Plan (NAP) (preparation ongoing)
  • National Strategy and Action Plan for Biodiversity (SPNAB)
  • National Wetland Management Policy (PNZH)
  • New Forest Policy (2005- 2025)

Priorities and Needs

The INDC highlights the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems and socio-economic systems.

The key impacts and vulnerabilities of biophysical systems are:

  • Hydraulic reserve: decrease in precipitation and increase in evaporation has resulted in drop of more than 50% in the flow of rivers, a general decline in groundwater levels, and salinization of freshwater and agricultural land in maritime diversion bays
  • Biodiversity and ecosystems: physiological disturbances to certain species and changes in the functioning of ecosystems
  • Soils and farmland: decrease in rainfall and increase in temperatures resulting in reduced vegetation cover, increased erosion, bare soil degradation and salinization of land
  • Oceans and seas: warming of the temperature of the ocean, changes in hydrodynamics and trophic enrichment mechanisms, and coastal erosion resulting from rising sea level

The INDC also notes the key economic sectors that are affected by climate change:

  • Tourism: some of the main tourist areas in Senegal are highly vulnerable to coastal erosion, with seaside tourism representing more than 50% of the national tourist offer
  • Agriculture: the decrease in rainfall and increase in temperature negatively affect agricultural yields and the productivity of the livestock sector
  • Fishing: marine disturbance impacts on fisheries resources and the resilience of fishing communities
  • Habitat and health: recurring floods heavily burden national budget and promote emergence of many diseases related to water

It notes that all sectors targeted for the revival of the Senegalese national economy, such as agriculture, livestock, fishing, tourism, health and nutrition issues, and access to water, remain vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Senegal’s INDC sets out a number of adaptation objectives for the period 2016 – 2035 in relation to several key sectors.

Biodiversity:

  • implementation of instruments such as the National Strategy and Plan for Action on Biodiversity [Stratégie et le Plan National d’Action sur la Biodiversité], the National Policy for the Management of Wetlands Zones, and draft framework on biodiversity and protected areas
  • strengthening ecosystem resilience

Coastal area:

  • establishment and support of a coastal observatory
  • protection of vulnerable areas and/or populations vulnerable to displacement
  • scientific and technical studies on the restoration of threatened coastal ecosystems.

Water resource:

  • resource regulation [Maitrise de la ressource]
  • integrated Water Resources Management.

Fisheries:

  • promotion of fishing insurance
  • prevention and management of risks and disasters
  • improved management, efficiency and extension of protected marine areas and marine park
  • sustainable aquaculture development and sustainable management of fishery resources.

Agriculture:

  • promotion of Sustainable Land Management technologies
  • improvement and adaptation of crop and forest products
  • promotion of agricultural insurance
  • promotion of climate information
  • scaling up the concerted management of natural resources

Livestock:

  • development of pastoral units
  • promotion of pastoral insurance
  • genetic improvement of species
  • improvement and adaptation of production and animal health.

Flood response:

  • reinforcement of sanitation infrastructure and stormwater drainage systems in cities
  • urban ecosystem planning integrating watersheds

Health:

  • strengthening and implementing the epidemiological surveillance system

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

The INDC sets out that Senegal will adopt an early warning system for disaster and risk prevention, and its adaptation objectives include measure for flood response.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

The INDC provides that the total cost of adaptation options to climate change by 2035 is US$ 14.338 billion. This includes US$1.832 billion of national commitment, and US$12.725 billion from external financing.

It makes clear that the implementation of the INDC will require significant human and technological resources, but also support from the community.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The INDC provides that, under the supervision of the Department of Environment and the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, monitoring and evaluation will be done as follows:

  • The National Committee on Climate Change will monitor the implementation of measures under the INDC
  • A mechanism will be established to monitor the implementation of the NAP
  • The establishment of a coastal observatory for coastal areas
  • The adoption of an early warning system for disaster and risk prevention
  • The Air Quality Management Center in Dakar will monitor the climatic and atmospheric parameters defined in the INDC
  • Regional Climate Change Committees (COMRECC) including local communities across decentralized structures, deconcentrated structures of sectoral departments, representatives of the private sector, NGOs and CBOs