The NDC sets out that at the institutional level the Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA) is the Ministry responsible for formulating and monitoring national policies related to climate change and environment, while the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA) is the official organ responsible for implementing national policies and strategies related to climate change and the environment.
It sets out that successful implementation of the NDC will require close coordination and collaboration between MINERENA, REMA and all potential stakeholders.
Rwanda’s NDC describes that the country is highly vulnerable to climate change, as it is strongly reliant on rain-fed agriculture for rural livelihoods and for exports of mainly tea and coffee. It highlights that in recent years, extreme weather events in Rwanda increased in frequency and magnitude and, in some parts of the country, led to significant losses including human lives. It sets out that floods and landslides were increasingly reported in the high altitude Western and Northern Provinces, while droughts made severe damages in the Eastern Province.
The NDC sets out that Rwanda is vulnerable to the increasing rainfall intensity that is expected to result from climate change, leading to a higher frequency of floods and storms resulting in landslides, crop losses, health risks, and damage to infrastructure, as well as an increase in temperatures resulting in proliferation of diseases, crop decline and reduced land availability that impacts on food security and export earnings.
The NDC sets out Rwanda’s long term vision to become a climate resilient economy. It details adaptation actions for five key sectors:
Agriculture: the sustainable intensification of agriculture and diversity in local and export markets
Forestry: sustainable forestry, agroforestry and biomass energy
Tourism: ecotourism, conservation and payment for ecosystem services promotion in protected areas
Water: integrated water resource management and planning
Land use: an integrated approach to sustainable land use planning and management
The NDC makes clear that its full implementation will require predictable, sustainable and reliable support in the form of finance, capacity building and technology transfer.
For both adaptation and mitigation actions, the initial costing of implementing the green growth and climate resilience strategy indicated that Rwanda will need US$24.15 billion in the water resource management, agriculture and energy sectors up to 2030. It notes that costing of the remaining sectors will give a clearer indication of financial needs.
Rwanda’s NDC explains that the Republic of Rwanda through the Ministry of Natural Resources hold the responsibility to monitor and evaluate the implementation of NDCs through regular statutory stakeholders’ consultative engagement including the Environment and Natural Resources Joint Sector Review (JSR) meetings.