National Focal Point
Federal Ministry of Environment
National Strategic Documents and Timeframe
- NDC: 2015 – 2030
- Nigeria Vision 20:2020, Economic Transformation Blueprint (2009)
- Transformation Agenda 2011 – 2015
- Nigeria Climate Change Policy Response and Strategy (NCCPRS) (2012)
- National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action for Climate Change Nigeria (NASPA-CCN) (2011)
- National Agricultural Resilience Framework (2014)
- National Policy on Environment
- Agricultural Policy
- Drought Preparedness Plan
- National Policy on Erosion and Flood Control
- National Water Policy
- National Forest Policy
- National Health Policy
- National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
Priorities and Needs
The NDC emphasises that Nigeria is highly vulnerable to climate change. It states that the 2014 World Climate Change Vulnerability Index, published by Verisk Maplecroft, classifies Nigeria as one of the ten most vulnerable countries in the world.
The NDC details the impacts of climate change in Nigeria, which it says vary in extent, severity and intensity:
- Overall economy: If no adaptation action is taken, it is estimated between 2-11% of Nigeria’s GDP could be lost by 2020. This poses a significant threat to the achievement of development goals, especially those related to eliminating poverty and hunger and promoting environmental sustainability.
- Agriculture and food security: Agriculture is one of the sectors most sensitive to climate change. Agricultural productivity could decline between 10 to 25 per cent by 2080, or as much as 50 per cent in some parts of the north.
- Water: Climate change brings increased variability in rainfall, resulting in flooding in some humid areas in the south in the country and a decrease in precipitation in the savannah north. This may result in droughts and decrease in surface water resources in the north. It is possible that changes in surface runoff and groundwater flows in shallow aquifers can be linked to climate variability with long-term implications for permanent and seasonal water bodies. Just less than 40% of the population have direct access to potable water.
- Floods and droughts: Climate change would result in increased variability in rainfall, predictably resulting in floods in many parts of the country, particularly the humid areas, with devastating consequences. Single extreme climate events have the potential to wipe out years of development. A decrease in precipitation is expected in the savannah north. This may result in increased drought frequency. The increasing aridity in the northeast of the country has drastically reduced opportunities for sustainable agriculture and is considered a contributing factor to the current conflict and high degree of insecurity in the region.
- Soil erosion: Climate change-related heavier and steadier than normal rainfall that is expected in the southern part of the country will worsen soil erosion, increasing the risk of severe landslides.
- Rising sea levels: Global warming-induced accelerated sea level rise (ASLR), anticipated to be 0.5 – 1m this century, would exacerbate the poor condition of the country’s coastline. With specific reference to the Niger Delta, it is estimated that with an ASLR of about 0.5m, about 35% of the highly-productive delta could be lost.
- Energy: Rising temperatures would result in increased energy demand for air conditioning, refrigeration and other household uses.
- Tourism: Many tourist attractions are located along the coastal zone of the country. Traditional festivals (e.g. the Argungu River festival in Kebbi State) may also be impacted by reduced river flow.
- Ecosystems: Persistent flooding and water logging could make coastal forest regeneration more difficult. On the other extreme, the savannah biome of northern Nigeria would be very vulnerable to a reduction in rainfall in the region. This could result in degradation of habitats and the intensification of desertification.
Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts
Nigeria’s NDC sets out thirteen sector-specific strategies, policies, programmes and measures to address adaptation:
- Adopt improved agricultural systems for both crops and livestock
- Implement strategies for improved resource management
- Focus on agricultural impacts in the savanna zones, particularly the Sahel, the areas that likely to be most affected by the impacts of climate change
Freshwater Resources, coastal water resources and fisheries:
- Initiate a national programme for integrated water resource management at the watershed level
- Intensify programmes to survey water quality and quantity for both ground and surface water
- Implement programmes to sustainably extend and improve water supply and water management infrastructure
- Explore water efficiency and management of water demand, particularly in Sahel and Sudan savanna areas
- Enhance artisanal fisheries and encourage sustainable aquaculture
- Strengthen the implementation of the national Community-Based Forest Resources Management Programme
- Support review and implementation of the National Forest Policy
- Develop and maintain a frequent forest inventory system to facilitate monitoring of forest status; and initiate a research programme on a range of climate change related topics, including long term impacts of climatic shifts on closed forests
- Provide extension services to CSOs, communities and the private sector to help establish
- restore community and private natural forests, plantations and nurseries
- Improve management of forest reserves and enforce low impact logging practice
- Support the active implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), particularly those strategic actions that address climate change impacts
- Support recommended climate change adaptation policies and programmes in sectors that affect biodiversity conservation, including agriculture, forestry, energy and livelihoods.
- Support and implement programmes for alternative livelihoods in order to reduce unsustainable resource use that contributes to loss of biodiversity
Health and Sanitation:
- Undertake research to better understand the health impacts of climate change in Nigeria
- Strengthen disease prevention and treatment for those diseases expected to increase as a result of climate change
- Reinforce programmes to build and maintain wastewater and solid waste management facilities
- Promote and facilitate the adoption of practices and technologies that reduce exposure and health impacts from extreme heat
- Establish early warning and health surveillance programmes
Human Settlements and Housing:
- Develop climate change adaptation action plans for urban areas, particularly those at greatest risk
- Assist communities to reduce vulnerability through participatory planning of land use and housing
- Discourage building/urban encroachment into vulnerable areas, high risk zones and low lying areas
- Discourage housing and settlement practices that are maladaptive in the face of climate change
- Strengthen rural settlements in order to reduce migration
- Include increased protective margins in construction and placement of energy infrastructure (i.e. higher standards and specifications)
- Undertake risk assessment & risk reduction measures to increase resilience of the energy sector
- Strengthen existing energy infrastructure, in part through early efforts to identify and implement all possible ‘no regrets’ actions
- Develop and diversify secure energy backup systems to ensure both civil society and security forces have access to emergency energy supply
- Expand sustainable energy sources and decentralize transmission in order to reduce vulnerability of energy infrastructure to climate impacts
Transportation and Communications:
- Include increased protective margins in construction and placement of transportation and communications infrastructure (i.e. higher standards and specifications)
- Undertake risk assessment and risk reduction measures to increase the resilience of the transportation and communication sectors
- Strengthen existing transportation and communications infrastructure, in part through early efforts to identify and implement all possible ‘no regrets’ actions
- Develop and diversify secure communication backup systems to ensure both civil society and security forces have access to emergency communication methods
Industry and Commerce
- Increase knowledge and awareness of climate change risks and opportunities
- Undertake and implement risk assessments and risk reduction measures
- Incorporate climate change into ongoing business planning
- Review and enforce land use plans in industrial areas in light of climate change
- Encourage relocation of high risk industries, facilities and markets
- Promote and market emerging opportunities from climate change
- Encourage informal savings and insurance schemes, and arrange for the availability of medium term credit (especially for industries in crisis)
Disaster, Migration and Security:
- Strengthen capacity to anticipate disasters and impacts on internal migration and security
- Strengthen capacity to respond through information and awareness, training, equipment, plans and scenarios, and communication
- Strengthen individual and community-based emergency preparedness and response capacity in high risk areas
- Strengthen rural infrastructure and the availability of jobs to discourage out-migration
- Develop a replicable approach/model that uses intermediate NGOs, community members and radio to diffuse climate change adaptation approaches and information and to gather feedback on adaptation actions focused on livelihoods
- Build a network of intermediate NGOs capable of working on climate change and livelihoods issues, where these NGOs support a number of communities in high risk states
- Animate communities with appropriate engagement methods, in order to elicit and document valid climate change and livelihood related needs/vulnerabilities
- Use or reinforce available (endogenous) community resources to reduce vulnerability and build livelihood-linked capacity to adapt to climate change
- Encourage community participation and active roles by both genders in all livelihood development initiatives
- Create awareness among government staff, including disaster and emergency management personnel, about climate change impacts and how these impacts affect vulnerable groups
- Provide basic training for government staff on gender awareness tools to enhance implementation capacities
- Adapt government programmes, including emergency response plans and programmes directed at vulnerable groups, to better address the impacts of climate change on these groups.
- Adapt public service facilities, including school buildings, to withstand storms and excess heat.
- Intensify immunization of children and youth to provide protection against diseases that are expected to become more prevalent with climate change
- Retrain health workers to appreciate emerging climate change challenges within the context of immunization delivery and other comprehensive healthcare delivery.
- Encourage faith-based and civil society organizations to provide social welfare programmes and other support to address the climate change-induced needs of vulnerable groups.
- Adapt to our national, the World Meteorological Organization- Global Framework for Climate Services (WMO-GFCS) to Nigeria’s needs (National Framework for Application of Climate Services – NFACS) to reduce vulnerability of communities through enhanced advocacy and implementation of the five Pillars of the Framework
- Provide evidence-based information to raise awareness and trigger climate change adaptation actions that will protect present and future generations in Nigeria.
- Develop skills-based curriculum in subjects like science, geography, social studies, language arts, environmental education and technology that will empower children to better respond to the threats of climate change.
- Train teachers on climate change adaptation teaching strategies and techniques at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria.
Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts
Nigeria’s NDC sets out strategies for disaster risk and response management, taking into account impacts on migration and security. These include:
- Strengthening capacity to anticipate disasters and their impacts on migration and security
- Strengthening capacity to respond to disasters and their impacts on migration and security
- Strengthening individual and community-based emergency preparedness and response capacity for high risk areas
- Improving rural infrastructure and the availability of jobs to discourage out-migration
Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities
The NDC makes clear that international finance and investment, technology and capacity-building will be needed to achieve the ambitious intended contribution, noting that further work is needed to determine the exact domestic share of the full contribution, as well as the total investment required.