Mozambique


National Focal Point

  • Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MITADER)

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2020 – 2030
  • National Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (NCCAMS) (MICOA, 2012)
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

Priorities and Needs

The NDC emphasises that Mozambique is extremely vulnerable to climate change occurring through alterations in the precipitation and temperature patterns and increased intensity and frequency of the occurrence of extreme whether events like floods, droughts, wind storms, including cyclones, and a rising sea level.

The NDC sets out that the national priority, as established in the National Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy, is ‘to increase resilience of communities and the national economy including the reduction of climate risks, and promote a low-carbon development and the green economy through the integration of adaptation and mitigation in sectorial and local planning.’

It provides that droughts and floods are the events that most affect the population, living in vulnerable areas, and that the latter are the most common occurrences followed by tropical cyclones. It describes the observed impacts of climate change in the country, including the loss of human lives, destruction of socioeconomic infrastructures and property, loss of livelihoods and environmental degradation, including erosion and saltwater intrusion, with impacts in the communities and the national economy.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Mozambique’s NDC states clearly its adaptation mission to “reduce climate change vulnerability and improve the wellbeing of Mozambicans through the implementation of concrete measures for adaptation and climate risk reduction, promoting mitigation and low-carbon development, aiming at sustainable development, with the active participation of all stakeholders in the social, environmental and economic sectors.”

The NDC lists the following strategic adaptation actions to be included in the NAP:

  • Reduce climate risks through the strengthening of the early warning system and of the capacity to prepare and respond to climate risks
  • Improve the capacity for integrated water resources management including building climate resilient hydraulic infrastructure
  • Increase the effectiveness of land use and spatial planning (protection of floodplains, coastal and other areas vulnerable to floods)
  • Increase the resilience of agriculture, livestock and fisheries, guaranteeing the adequate levels of food security and nutrition
  • Increase the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable groups
  • Reduce people’s vulnerability to climate change related vector-borne diseases or other diseases
  • Ensure biodiversity’s protection
  • Reduce soil degradation and promote mechanisms for the planting of trees for local use
  • Develop resilient climate resilience mechanisms for infrastructures, urban areas and other human settlements and tourist and coastal zones
  • Align the legal and institutional frameworks with the NCCAMS
  • Strengthen research and systematic observation institutions for the collection of data related to vulnerability assessment and adaption to climate change
  • Develop and ameliorate the level of knowledge and capacity to act on climate change
  • Promote the transfer and adoption of clean and climate change resilient technologies

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

A number of the adaptation actions included in Mozambique’s NDC have synergies with disaster risk reduction efforts, including:

  • Reducing climate risks through the strengthening of the early warning system and of the capacity to prepare and respond to climate risks
  • Building climate resilient hydraulic infrastructure
  • Increasing the resilience of agriculture, livestock and fisheries
  • Reducing peoples vulnerability to climate change related vector-borne diseases or other diseases
  • Developing resilient climate resilience mechanisms for infrastructures, urban areas and other human settlements and tourist and coastal zones

The NDC identifies Mozambique’s weak capacity to determine the cost of the loss and damage caused by the impacts and of the measures to adapt to climate change and few research and investigation actions addressing climate change as a barrier to its adaptation actions.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

Mozambique’s INDC identifies financial, technology and knowledge, and political and institutional gaps and barriers for adaptation. It states that for its implementation, it is necessary to:

  • Operationalize the NCCAMM implementation mechanisms, namely the Knowledge Management Centre, the National Climate Change Network and the Financial Mechanism
  • Assess the capacity needs of the National Climate Change Network and elaborate and implement the capacity plan to conduct research and investigation in the relevant areas
  • Strengthen the institutions to collect and manage data and information and create a data base about the existent studies and experts
  • Elaborate and implement a strategy for climate change education, awareness raising, communication and public participation
  • Assess the adaptation technology needs and formulate and implement the associated plan
  • Update the sectoral policies to mainstream climate change adaptation and risk reduction
  • Establish climate insurances
  • Build national technical and institutional capacity to design and manage projects to access climate financing

Monitoring and Evaluation

The NDC states that the government has approved the National System to Monitor and Evaluate Climate Change and this will be used to MRV the adaptation actions. This system is being tested and will be functioning before 2020 and onwards.