Morocco


National Focal Point

Secrétariat d’Etat Chargée du Développement Durable (State Secretariat in Charge of Sustainable Development)

National Strategic Documents and Timeframe

  • NDC: 2021 – 2030
  • National Adaptation Plan
  • National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD)
  • National Institutional Arrangements

The NDC provides that Morocco’s vision on climate change, to make its territory and civilization more resilient to climate change while ensuring a rapid transition to a low-carbon economy, is enshrined in the Framework Law on the National Charter for Environment and Sustainable Development (NCESD).

Priorities and Needs

Morocco’s NDC describes that Morocco is among the Mediterranean and African regions that have been exposed to the impacts of climate change for several decades now. In Morocco, the impacts of climate change take the form of a reduction in precipitation and snow cover, and a general rise in temperatures across the country.

The NDC explains that studies show that in the future, Morocco will become more arid due to a decrease in precipitation, a concurrent temperature increase, and extreme weather events occurring with higher frequency. Projections show that the country’s decrease in precipitation will be to the order of 20% on a 2050-time horizon, with a greater impact in semi-arid plains.

It is stated that Morocco is very vulnerable to climate change, due to its geographical location, and is prone to: water scarcity, declining agricultural production, desertification, flooding, and rising sea levels.

The NDC sets out that some economic sectors or ecosystems are more sensitive than others to climate change, namely: water, agriculture, fisheries, shorelines, forestry, and health.

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

Morocco’s NDC states its vision to address the risks of climate change impacts: Preserve its territory and its civilization in the most appropriate manner, effectively responding to the vulnerabilities of its territory and implementing an adaptation policy that builds resilience for of its population and its economic actors to face these vulnerabilities.

The NDC sets out Morocco’s ultimate objectives in addressing climate change, and then lists several quantified sectoral goals for 2020 and 2030:

Agriculture:

  • to switch from current irrigation systems to localized irrigation systems over an area of 550,000 hectares (USD 3.7 billion) (2020)
  • to develop public-private partnerships to delegate irrigation services (USD 337 million) (2020)
  • hydro-agricultural infrastructure around dams over 160,000 hectares (USD 2.1 billion) (2020)
  • coverage of risk against climatic variations through multi-risk insurance for cereals and legumes covering 1 million hectares (2020)
  • extension of irrigation to new agricultural areas, over 260,000 hectares (USD $3 billion) (2030)
  • equipping and modernizing irrigation systems over 290,000 hectares (USD $2 billion) (2030)

Water:

  • substitution of water samples from overexploited groundwater tables (85 million metres cubed annually) with above-ground water sources (2020)
  • artificial replenishment of groundwater tables by up to 180 million metres cubed per year (2020)
  • connection to the water treatment network in urban areas at a rate of 75% by 2016, and 80% by 2020; Wastewater treatment at a rate of 50% by 2016 and 60% by 2020; and restructuring the full-service distribution sector at the regional level to reach a rate of 60% for individual connection by 2020
  • the construction of three dams per year on average in order to reach 25 million metres cubed in stocking capacity (USD2.7 billion) (2030)
  • the desalinization of seawater in order to reach a capacity of 500 million metres cubed per year (USD 15 billion) (2030)
  • recycling of wastewater in order to reach a capacity of 325 billion metres cubed per year (USD 3 billion) (2030)
  • Transferring 800 million metres cubed of water per year from north to south (USD 3 billion) (2030)
  • improving the efficiency of the drinking water network with a national average target of 80% (2030)
  • Connection to the water treatment network in urban areas at a rate of 100% (2030)
  • various programs and actions aimed at preserving water resources and natural habitats, and at improving the management of extreme climate events (USD 5.7 billion) (2030)
  • connection to the water treatment network in urban areas at a rate of 100% (2030)

Forests:

  • replenish 200,000 hectares of forests (2020)
  • protecting 1,500,000 hectares against erosion, which will include the prioritization of 22 basins (USD 260 million) (2030)
  • afforesting 600,000 hectares (USD 46 million) (2030)

Fisheries and Aquaculture

  • reach a 95% rate of traded species managed sustainably (2020)
  • reduction of discharges by 90% compared to current levels (2020)
  • establish a coastal observation network, equipped with four oceanographic and metrological buoys, and expand the environmental and sanitary surveillance and warning system along the coastline to 40 observation zones (2020)
  • reduce by 50% the quantity of fish meal created from fresh fish (2020)
  • establish marine protected areas representing 10% of the Exclusive Economic Zone (2030)
  • develop two hatcheries dedicated to restock five endangered coastal species (2030)
  • renew and modernize 30% of the fleets, including with greener vessels equipped with observation systems (2030)
  • restore 50% of damaged marine habitats (2030)
  • increase by 50% the volume of sea products utilized and marketed (2030)

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

A number of Morocco’s sectoral goals for adaptation involve synergies with disaster risk reduction efforts, including, for 2030, various programs and action aimed at improving the management of extreme climate events, and securing the national roadway system against climate change-induced floods.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

Morocco’s NDC makes clear that reaching its adaptation targets will only be possible with significant support from the international community and creditors.

It explains that adaptation needs will have significant budgetary implications for Morocco, for all sectors of the economy, and for the protection of human and animal health. Investments planned to achieve the desired targets in the water, agricultural and forestry sectors are estimated at USD $2.5 billion. Securing the national roadways system against additional climate change-induced floods would cost 5% more than traditional maintenance costs.

The NDC states that between 2020 and 2030, Morocco estimates that the cost of implementation of adaptation projects for the forestry and agriculture sectors will at a minimum reach US$ 35 billion.

Morocco is seeking the support of the international community to implement the included in its NAP. Beyond financial support, Morocco expects to benefit from technical and institutional capacity building, particularly regarding the creation of data and knowledge sharing. It also expects to benefit from legal, financial and engineering support pertaining to designing and implementing projects at the regional and local levels, as well as for the monitoring and evaluation of their socioeconomic impacts.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The NDC provides that Morocco has put in place a system to monitor and assess vulnerability and adaptation to climate change that aims to provide the country’s regions with an institutional mechanism to monitor climate sensitivities and results stemming from adaptation actions, all the while taking gender issues into account. This pilot project was first tested in southern Moroccan regions. The adoption of the monitoring and evaluation systems by other regions is planned for the medium term, with the implementation of a national governance mechanism to oversee the monitoring and evaluation system.