National Focal Point
- Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)
National Strategic Documents and Timeframe
- NDC: 2020-2030
- Sustainable Development Strategy; Egypt’s Vision 2030
- Egyptian National Strategy for Sustainable Development
Priorities and Needs
Egypt’s NDC notes that the vulnerability of water resources to climate change depends on Nile flows, rainfall, and ground water. It then outlines climate change risks in the agricultural sector, coastal zones, the tourism sector, harm to national heritage, the health sector and energy sector.
Agriculture sector: losses in crop productivity are mainly attributed to frequent temperature increase, irrigation water deficit, and pests and plant disease, while 12% to 15% of the most fertile arable land in the Nile Delta is negatively affected by sea level rise and salt water intrusion. Increased temperature rise leads to harmful heat stress and new animal diseases for livestock. Seawater temperature will also shift fish distribution, and increased water salinity will negatively affect fish in coastal lakes.
Coastal zones: expected to suffer from sea level rise and the overflow of low-level land.
Tourism sector: coral reefs, a major attraction, are highly vulnerable to climate change, and in urban areas, heat islands are a concern.
National heritage: temperature rise, sandy winds and groundwater will inflict harm on national heritage;
Health sector: climate change increases direct and indirect negative impacts on public health, for example higher death rates due to heat stress.
Energy sector: increase in temperature negatively affects the efficiency of conventional power plants and photovoltaic cells, and sea level rise threatens infrastructure along the coasts. Additionally, power generation will be negatively affected by rainfall rates and distribution, as well as increased electricity consumption as a result of use of air conditioners.
Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts
Egypt’s NDC includes a section for Egypt’s Adaptation Efforts which details adaptation challenges (Climate Change risks), Egypt’s intended actions to promote resilience, and Egypt’s adaptation action packages.
Egypt’s intended actions to promote resilience include:
- Several measures to adapt to decreasing water resources or increasing Nile flows
- Raising public awareness on the need for rationalizing water use
- Enhancing precipitation measurement networks in upstream countries of the Nile Basin
- Encouraging data exchange between Nile Basin countries
- Developing Circulation Models to predict the impact of climate change on logal and regional water resources.
- Changing sowing dates and good management practices
- Changing cultivars to those that are more tolerant to heat, salinity and pests
- Changing crop pattern
- Using different multi-level combinations of improved surface irrigation systems
- Applying deficit irrigation
- Improving the current low productivity of cattle
- Improving feeding programs
- changes in land use
- integrated coastal zone management
- proactive planning for protecting coastal zones
- providing job opportunities in locations that are not impacted by climate change
Additional Adaptation Policies and Measures:
- building institutional capacities of comprehensive data collection and analysis
- identifying and assessing vulnerable sectors and stakeholders
- enforcing environmental regulations
- identifying and applying protection measures for touristic and archaeological sites, and roads
- building capacities for using regional water circulation models
- proactive planning and integrated coastal zone management
- risk reduction
- increasing awareness of stakeholders for energy and water utilization
The NDC then outlines Egypt’s adaptation actions packages as follows:
- Reduce climate change associated risks and disasters.
- Capacity building of the Egyptian society to adapt to climate change and associated risks and disasters.
- Enhance national and regional partnership in managing crises and disasters related to climate change and the reduction of associated risk.
Water Resources and Irrigation
- Increase investments in modern irrigation systems.
- Cooperate with Nile Basin countries to reduce water evaporation and increase river capacity.
- Develop national policies to encourage citizens on water use rationalization
- Build an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level.
- Activate genetic diversity of plant species with maximum productivity.
- Achieve biological diversity of all livestock, fishery, and poultry elements to protect them and ensure food security.
- Develop agro-economic systems and new structures to manage crops, fisheries and animal production, which are resilient to climate changes.
- Increase the efficiency of irrigation water use, while maintaining crop productivity and protecting land from degradation.
- Review of new and existing land use policies and agricultural expansion programs to take into account possibilities of land degradation in Delta and other affected areas resulting from Mediterranean Sea level rise.
- Develop systems, programs and policies to protect rural community and support its adaptive capacity to the expected trend in land use change, plant and animal production, and internal migration due to climate change.
- Identify potential health risks as a result of climate change.
- Raise community awareness about climate change risks and means of adaptation.
- Increase the efficiency of healthcare sector and improve the quality of health services in dealing with climate change.
- Support Ministry of Health efforts to improve the social and economic status and population characteristics.
Rural Areas, Population, and Roads
- Draw a baseline scenario for the optimal regional distribution of population and economic activities within the geographical boundaries of Egypt up to the year 2100, taking climate change into consideration.
- Reduce climate change risks in touristic areas.
- Engage users in supporting the proposed strategy.
- Support periodical monitoring and observations systems and follow-up bodies.
- Raise environmental awareness.
- Cooperate with international bodies.
- Incorporate disaster risks within the plans to promote sustainable tourism in Egypt.
- Capacity building of local communities in touristic areas.
- Conduct comprehensive studies to assess the impact of climate change on the energy sector, propose appropriate adaptation measures, and estimate the economic cost of the proposed adaptation measures. In addition, these studies should determine the safe locations for the construction of power generation projects.
- Build institutional and technical capacities of different units in the energy sector in climate change issues.
- Support research and technological development to enable the electricity sector to deal properly with climate change.
Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts
The NDC identifies adaptation policies and procedures which are relevant to disaster risk reduction including:
- identifying and applying protection measures of vulnerable touristic and archaeological sites and roads against extreme natural phenomena such as floods, dust storms and extreme weather conditions
- risk reduction
There are also a number of Adaptation Action Packages which are relevant to disaster risk reduction, including:
- For coastal zones: capacity building to adapt to climate change risks and disasters; and enhancing national and regional partnership in managing crises and disasters related to climate change and the reduction of associated risk.
- For agricultural sector: building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level.
- For tourism sector: incorporating disaster risks within the plans to promote sustainable tourism in Egypt.
Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities
Implementation of Egypt’s NDC requires sustainable international support from reliable resources through financial flows, capacity building, and technology transfer as relevant to the local context.
Preliminary estimates of the financial contributions required for implementing the NDCs for both adaptation and mitigations estimated at approximately US$73.04 billion can be increased. In addition, transfer of technology appropriate to the local context and national capacity building are needed.