Chad


National Focal Point

Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Eau et de la Pêche (Minister of the Environment, Water and Fisheries), and National Meteorology Agency

National Strategic Documents and Time frame

  • NDC: 2015 – 2030
  • National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) 2009
  • National Investment Plan for the Rural Sector (PNISR) 2014-2020
  • Country Resilience Priorities (PRP) AGIR CHAD for implementation by 2020
  • Project to Improve the Resilience of Agricultural Systems in Chad (PARSAT) 2015-2022

Priorities and Needs

Chad’s NDC highlights that the country’s main economic activities are those associated with the primary sector, such as subsistence agriculture, livestock rearing and fishing. It describes that the impacts of climate change are significant on the large hydrographic systems of the basins of Lakes Chad and Niger. The impacts include changes to the agricultural seasons, disturbances in the biological cycles of crops and a reduction in cereal crop production.

The NDC identifies water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fishing as priority sectors for adaptation. It also identifies the following priority target zones as especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change: Kanem, Barh El Ghazal, Batha, Guéra, Hadjer Lamis, Wadi Fira, Ouaddai, Dar Sila, Lac, Moyen-Chari, Borkou, Tibesti, Ennedi Est, and Ennedi Oues.

The NDC lists the following priorities in terms of adaptation to climate change:

Cross-cutting priorities:

  • Reinforce the capacities of the stakeholders (farmers, fishermen and livestock rearers) and their revenue-generating activities
  • Improve production techniques by developing water infrastructure, access to improved and adapted inputs(food crop and fodder seeds, animal gene banks, manure management, compost management, etc.), develop storage and conservation units to limit high post-harvest losses
  • Inform, educate and communicate information relating to climate risk,(improve the observatory used to forecast meteorological events and develop the population’s ability to react in the event of a catastrophe)
  • Create an observatory for policies for adapting to climate change
  • Improve the seasonal forecast of precipitation and surface runoff
  • Manage climate risks

Water:

  • Manage water through the creation and development of agricultural irrigation structures including retention ponds, irrigated perimeters, artificial lakes, and the application of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Governance

Agriculture:

  • Develop intensive and diverse cultivation, using improved inputs, (organic fertilisers including composts, adapted plant varieties), agroforestry, land and water conservation (implementation of soil restoration works) and preparation and distribution of new cropping calendars

Livestock:

  • Securing pastoralism and transhumance through common grazing zones, as well as creating and popularising fodder banks and crossbreeding of animal species

Fish:

  • Development of enclosed fish farming areas

Current and Planned Adaptation Efforts

The current and planned initiatives to support adaptation include four priority projects at the national level:

  • development of intensive and diversified crops that are adapted to extreme climate risks
  • soil restoration and defence against degradation caused by climate change
  • improvement of intercommunity grassland areas, in order to reduce migratory movements due to climate change
  • National Agency for the Great Green Wall.

At the regional level, the current and planned initiatives to support adaptation are:

  • the Lake Chad basin sustainable development programme (PRODEBALT with funding from ADB)
  • the nutrition and food insecurity resilience reinforcement programme in the Sahel (P2RS, based on African Development Funds amounting to US$15 million)
  • the Project in Support of the Lake Chad Basin initiative to reduce vulnerability and the risks associated with STIs/HIV/AIDS (PAIBLT, ADB)
  • the regional ‘Adaptation to climate change in the Lake Chad Basin’ project (German Ministry for Economic Development and Cooperation/Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation coorpeartion) covering the period 2013-2018
  • the Lake Chad preservation project: contribution to the Lake development strategy (GEF-ADF)
  • Pan-African Great Green Wall agency
  • the Programme for integrated management of cross-border basins in Africa – example: Lake Chad (EU)
  • the regional programme to reinforce the resilience of countries in the Sahel (US$26 million, IDB)

In the NDC’s summary of adaptation projects to be implemented, the following programmes are listed:

  • develop access to water whilst ensuring it is used to its full potential
  • promote water-efficient and intensive agriculture
  • secure animal and fishery production and promote associations
  • support development of fishing resources
  • develop of renewable energies for the agriculture and pastoral sectors
  • reinforce cloud-seeding operations to compensate for the rainfall deficit in agriculture
  • strengthen meteorological and climate networks and improve weather and climate forecasting tools
  • communication relating to climate risks and adaptation scenarios
  • maintain initiatives in favour of the environment (FSE)
  • improve access to agriculture production and livestock zones

Synergies with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

Chad recognises that there is a need to inform, educate and communicate information regarding climate risks, and also to manage those risks. This would be supported by improving the observatory used to forecast meteorological events and developing the ability of the population to react in the event of a catastrophe. One of the priority projects for adaptation at the national level is the development of intensive and diversified crops that are adapted to extreme climate risk.

Requirements for Additional Planning, Financial and Technical Capacities

Chad’s NDC highlights that in order to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, adaptation needs include the reinforcement of human, institutional and technological capacities, as well as financial support and technology transfer.

In terms of reinforcement of human and institutional capacity, the following needs are listed:

  • Inform, educate and communicate information regarding climate risks and adaptation technologies (develop the population’s ability to react)
  • Reinforce stakeholder attitudes, (in particular in relation to women and farmers), with regards to new techniques in terms of intensive and sustainable methods of production
  • Support research and encourage the transfer of technology between research bodies and agro-silvo-pastoral stakeholders
  • Support institutions in defining adaptation priorities, for each socio-economic sector, based on the needs of the population and favouring coherence between sectors, in particular during the preparation of the National Adaptation Plan

In terms of technical needs and technology transfers, the following needs are detailed:

  • Control and management of water resources
  • Intensification and diversification of agrarian production
  • Secure migration of livestock and support the combining agriculture and livestock raising
  • Support the use of water resources
  • Improve population wellbeing
  • Knowledge of spacio-temporal changes to the environment
  • Support initiatives

In terms of financial needs, the NDC provides that funding needs for adaptation amount to US$14,169,578,232 in total for the period. It makes clear that clear that it will only be possible for Chad to achieve the conditional adaptation objectives with contributions from the international community amounting to US$11,379,670,914.